Indigenist painter Jose Sabogal

José Arnaldo Sabogal Diéguez (1888/03/19 Perú/ Cajamarca/ Cajabamba - 1956/12/15 Perú/ Lima / Lima) was a Peruvian painter and writer, who was one of the first promoters and leaders of the indigenean movement of Perú.
He becomes a teacher and director of the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes (ENBA).
Under his pupils were Vinatea Reinoso, Camilo Blas, Enrique Camino Brent, Julia Codesido, Carlota (Cota) Carvallo, Jorge Segura, Aquiles Ralli, Gamaniel Palomino, Pedro Azabache Bustamante, Andrés Zevallos and Eladio Ruiz.

 >Der peruanische Maler Jose Sabogal

Most famous paintings

"Huanta", "Plaza de Huanta", "La Esmeralda de los Andes", "Plaza Serrana", "Caballo Nacional o Caballo de Paso", "Mujer en el Desierto (de Sechura)", "Manta Limeña" y "Mujeres del Ucayali"
El recluta


Sabogal was born 1888 in Cajabamba as a child of the mestizan family of Matías Sabogal (Spanish) and Manuela Diéguez de Florencia.
Between 1908 and 1910 he visited Spain, the south of France, Italy extensively - living for a while in Rome - and the north of Africa before returning to America. He stays in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
From 1912 to 1913he studies at the National School of Art in Buenos Aires.
Between 1914 and 1917 he works as an art teacher in Jujuy, Argentina. There he meets the painter Jorge Bermúdez, a passionate lover of the rural life, who influenced Sabogal to promote indigenism.
1918 he lives for six months in Cuzco, Peru, where he paints the city with its inhabitants.
1919 the exhibition of his Cuzco paintings at the Casa Brandes in Lima draws attention to his work.
From 1920 to 1932 Sabogal taught at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes (ENBA) in Lima becoming its first professor of painting.
1922 he exhibits his works in Mexico, making acquaintance with Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros.
1922 he marries the writer María Wiesse Romero (1894-1964), daughter of the historian Carlos Wiesse Portocarrero, with whom he has two children: José Sabogal Wiesse (1923-1983) and Rosa Teresa Sabogal Wiesse (1925-1985).
1926 the first issue of the renowned magazine Amauta showed one of his works on its cover.
From 1932 to 1943 he was the second director of the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes (ENBA) - now Escuela Nacional Superior Autónoma de Bellas Artes del Perú (ENSABAP) < > - in Lima.

El Indigena peruano


Cumbia is a music genre popular throughout Latin America. The Cumbia originated in Colombia's Caribbean coastal region and Panama, from the musical and cultural fusion of Native Colombians and Panamanians, slaves brought from Africa, and the Spanish during colonial times in the old country of Pocabuy, which is located in Colombia's Momposina Depression and in the northeast of Panama, in the ancient palenques of the Congo nation. Cumbia began as a courtship dance practiced among the African population, which was later mixed with Amerindian steps and European and African instruments and musical characteristics. Cumbia is very popular in the Andean region and the Southern Cone, and is for example more popular than the salsa in many parts of these regions.

Subgenres from the Tawantinsuyu area

Chicha (Andean Cumbia)

 Chacalon y La Nueva Crema
Song: Ven Mi Amor

Los Ecos (Peru)
Album: Peru Maravilloso - Vintage Latin, Tropical & Cumbia
Song: Me Siento Felíz

New Chilean Cumbia

Chico Trujillo (Chile)
Album: Gran pecador (2011)

Colombian Cumbia

 Armando Hernandez (Colombia)
Song: La Zenaida

Cumbia villera

 Damas Gratis (Argentina)
Album: Para Los Pibes (2000)

Indie-pop cumbia

Los Labios (Argentina)
Album: Papi Swing (2013)
Song: Papi Swing

Peruvian Cumbia

 Juaneco y su combo (Peru)
Album: El Brujo


Rossy War (Peru)
Song: Nunca Pense Llorar (1997)
Sound (Chilenian Tecnocumbia)
Amerika'n Sound (Chile)
Song: Cumbia

The new Chilenean-Peruvian maritime border

A six-year maritime dispute between Chile and Peru was settled by the International Court of Justice in The Hague, ruling largely in favor of Peru.
The dispute concerns the delimitation of the boundary between the maritime zones of the two States in the Pacific Ocean including the recognition of a large Peruvian maritime zone (28'356 km²) lying within 200 nautical miles of Peru's coast, and thus appertaining to Peru, but which Chile considers to be part of the high seas.
In 2008, Peru, under President Alan García, took Chile to the World Court.

The dispute was a legacy of the War of the Pacific, which lasted from 1879 to 1883. Chile won, conquering Peruvian territory and depriving Bolivia of a coastline. A treaty between Peru and Chile in 1929 granted Chile control of Arica, and the countries later fixed a land boundary. The maritime boundary, however, was never fully defined.
Peru's request:
"The Republic of Peru requests the Court to adjudge and declare that: one, the delimitation between the respective maritime zones between the Republic of Peru and the Republic of Chile, is a line starting at 'Point Concordia', defined as the intersection with the low-water mark of a 10-kilometre radius arc, having as its centre the first bridge over the River Lluta of the Arica-La Paz railway and equidistant from the baselines of both Parties, up to a point situated at a distance of 200 nautical miles from those baselines, and, two, beyond the point where the common maritime border ends, Peru is entitled to exercise exclusive sovereign rights over a maritime area lying out to a distance of 200 nautical miles from its baselines."
Chile's request:
"Chile respectfully requests the Court to dismiss Peru's claims in their entirety and to adjudge and declare that, one, the respective maritime zone entitlements of Chile and Peru have been fully delimited by agreement; two those maritime zone entitlements are delimited by a boundary following the parallel of latitude passing through the most seaward boundary marker of the land boundary between Chile and Peru, known as Hito No. 1, having a latitude of 18° 21' 00" S under WGS84 Datum; and three, Peru has no entitlement to any maritime zone extending to the south of that parallel."

Chile argued that the border had been clearly established by fishing treaties signed by Chile, Peru and Ecuador in 1952 and 1954; by subsequent agreements; and by customary practice and the unilateral actions of Peru.
The court agreed to those arguments, but also recognized that those treaties had not expressly defined a general maritime boundary. Therefore the court settled on a compromise, akknowledging the status quo for the first 80 miles from the coast along a line of latitude and beyond that the customary delimitation constructed on the equidistant from the baselines of both Parties, up to the point situated at a distance of 200 nautical miles from those baselines.ICJ Peru Chile judgment map3

>The International Court of Justice (ICJ), the principal judicial organ of the United Nations, today closed its public hearings in the case concerning the maritime dispute between Peru and Chile.

>The Economist explains Chile and Peru's Pacific dispute

Ayrampo - A useful Andean cactus

Ayrampo - botanical name 'Tunilla soehrensii' - is a species of the genus Tunilla, which is a sister genus of the much more common genus of the Opuntia, known as 'prickly pears', 'nopalea', 'tunas' or 'paddle cactuses'. Same as the Opuntia the Tunilla have their own 'prickly pears' (English) or 'Kaktusfeigen' (German). In Spanish there exist various names: 'nopales' (North-America), 'tunas' (South-America) and 'higos chumbos' (Spain) for the fruits of the tribe of Opuntieae. However mostly all these names refer to the fruits of the Indian Fig Opuntia (O. ficus-indica), which is only one certain species of the sister genus of the Opuntia.

The botanist Alberto Vojtěch Frič named the genus of the Tunilla 'Airampoa'. Sources state the name 'Ayrampo' to be of Quechuan origin [1] [8]. Therefor several other transcriptions exist, like "Ayranpu [7] [8]",  "Haranpu [8]", "Ayrampu [6]", "Airampo [2] [3] [6]", "Airampu [9]" or "Irampo [1]".

 >Ayrampo - Ein andiner Feigenkaktus


Ayrampo is an endemic species in the south of Peru, Bolivia, north of Chile and the north of Argentina in heights above 3'000m [5]. It grows strongest between 3'300 and 4'000m. [5]

Human usage of Ayrampo

Technical use

The flower and fruit are natural dyes, having a dark carmine color used for dying fibers like wool. [2] [5] [6] [9]

Culinary use

  • Food colorant
    It’s a natural food colorant (e.g. to give color to beverages, cough syrup, bread, pastry). [2] [3] [5] [6]
  • Infusion
    The seeds are often used for refreshing infusions. [2] [3] [8]
  • Ice cream
    It’s also common to prepare it in ice cream form with a little of cinnamon. [2] [3]

Medical use

  • Antipyretic
    The infusion made with the seeds reduces or limits high fever. [2] [3] [4] [6] [8] 
  • Antiphlogistic
    The infusion is also a treatment against inflammations [5] of mucous membranes, like conjunctivitis (extertanally) [4] [6] [8] or ulcers like aphths (recurring oral aphthae and recurrent aphthous ulceration) [1] [4] [6] or peptic ulcers [2].
  • Laxative
    The juice of the quenched cladodes has a purgative effect. [1]

The beginning of a Peruvian drug war?

  The Humala administration continues to suck up to the USA and is preparing to copy Colombia and Mexico in their 'war on drugs'.

According to United Nations data the Valley of the Apurimac and Ene Rivers (known as VRAE) is the biggest grower of coca on Earth.
The presence of police and military has been augmented significantly. Already, this has led to various lethal incidents, most probably including the death of children.
It is known that the government is preparing to expropriate more than 1'100 acres of farmland on the valley floor to build a new military airbase.

2012 the permanently on the edge of bankruptcy balancing US-government has paid for its 'war on drugs' 55$ million to Peru. This year, the US embassy in Lima says, the USA will even spend 100$ million.

Música afroperuana

La música y la cultura afroperuana de la costa del Pacífico, quizá una de las más desconocidas de las músicas negras de América, fue socialmente silenciada hasta mediados del siglo pasado. Una de las responsables de su puesta al día es la ganadora de un Grammy, SUSANA BACA, que ha recorrido la costa peruana recogiendo toda la tradición musical negra.

En la boca de la cantante Susana Baca se pinta una amplia sonrisa cuando rememora su infancia en el distrito limeño de Chorrillos. En el barrio se entretejen los recuerdos de una de las mejores etapas de su vida, cuando la música "se le metió en las venas".

No podía ser de otra forma. Hija de padre guitarrista y madre bailarina aprendió mucho de sus tías "que eran gordas y cantaban con voces extraordinarias a lo Aretha Franklin". Ese sonido rítmico marcado por la percusión y el movimiento se escondía en los callejones del barrio de La Victoria.

Estos rincones, que el documental muestra de cerca con impactantes planos aéreos, son verdaderos santuarios vivos de la música afroperuana, dónde las tías entradas en carnes enseñaron a la niña Susana que en su juventud cantaban y bailaban en el campo, a falta de radio y televisión.

De esta mixtura folclórica nacen los Panalivios: "danzas de trabajo en el campo que se recuerdan desde siempre", y que la solista interpreta a menudo con emoción.
¡Pum, pum, pum¡ así suenan los graves

La melodía afroperuana es fruto puro del mestizaje. Es un árbol que crece amparado en tres raíces: la música hispana, los sonidos indígenas y la herencia de los ritmos de los africanos esclavizados.

Un ritmo "negro" extendido por la costa de Perú (conocida como la 'costa negra') que fue socialmente silenciado hasta mediados del siglo pasado. Quizás como una paradoja del destino, a cambio de la pasada represión, los sonidos africanos han resistido y florecido a través del tiempo.

La mezcla también desembocó en nuevos instrumentos: el tambor de África pronto se transformó en el característico cajón, originario de las comunes cajas de embalaje.

"¡Pum, pum, pum¡, de abajo se sacan los graves, cambiando la forma de la mano y tocando la parte de arriba los agudos", explica ante la cámara el músico Rafael Santa Cruz, sobre la forma correcta de dar " toques" al cajón. Un instrumento al que "se le puede sacar sonido desde cualquier parte".

Los sonidos africanos han resistido a través del tiempo

Para Susana Baca estos "toques" marcarían su vida y se convertirían en el leit motiv de su misión: recuperar estos ritmos negros perdidos en los rincones más recónditos de todo Perú. Acompañada de su marido y representante, Ricardo Pereira, recorrieron durante once años toda la costa del país investigando y rescatando las antiguas canciones.

El resultado de esta aventura se plasmó en la creación del llamado Instituto Negro, dónde se depositarían parte de los materiales recopilados. La institución tuvo que cerrar pero como cuenta la propia cantante en el documental de Patricia Ferreira: "Se logró crear el puente de filigrana para continuar la música".